Growing conditions and agricultural technology of beans: planting and care
Beans are a unique member of the legume family, because thanks to the vitamins and minerals they contain, they can replace meat. This wonderful vegetable has a beneficial effect on the functioning of many human organs. Regular consumption of beans helps to rejuvenate the body. Beans are eaten as a preventive measure against many diseases. It is not surprising that, with such excellent properties, it takes pride of place on the site of any gardener.
We will tell you how to cultivate this crop in our article.
Growing conditions and agricultural technology of beans
Beans are a whimsical and thermophilic plant. How to get a good harvest of this crop? Where to start the process of growing beans? We offer efficient cultivation methods that will help you to get a good harvest.
Bean Seed Selection
The first, most important and crucial point is choosing the right bean variety that is easiest to grow in your climatic conditions. When choosing a variety, we recommend giving your preference to bush plants, since they are less demanding on heat and take up less space on the site. And if you give preference to early maturing varieties, then after 60 days you will be able to see the first pods. Then comes the time to grow mid-season beans.
Photo: Green beans
Preparing a bed for beans
Choose the right crop area and prepare the soil for sowing. A garden bed protected from the wind should be well lit by the sun. The best beans grow in sandy loam soil. Clear the area of perennial weeds and loosen - the soil should be light and breathable. If necessary, add phosphorus-potassium fertilizers to the soil: leguminous plants extract nitrogen themselves.
When fertilizing the soil, remember that an excess of macronutrients can lead to an active growth of the vegetative mass of beans to the detriment of the fruit.
Bush beans should be sown in rows on raised beds - this will help the soil to warm up and speed up the emergence of seedlings.
In the photo: Cooking the garden
Sowing seeds and planting bean seedlings in open ground
Sowing of beans is carried out in the last days of May or at the beginning of June. By this time, stable warm weather has set in the garden, and the soil has time to warm up well, and this is the most important condition for the successful germination of beans. Many people prefer to plant beans in seedlings. In order to get seedlings by the time of the onset of stable heat, bean seeds are sown in a greenhouse in about 25-30 days. To achieve the appearance of sprouts, the beans need to be soaked in water for several hours.
Be careful, the tiny white sprouts of bean seeds break off easily when planting, and if this happens, the seed will not sprout.
Sprouted seeds should be planted in a greenhouse to a depth of 7-8 centimeters, 3-4 pieces in each hole with a diameter of about 20-25 cm. Watering beans should be sparingly, but the soil should not dry out. The first shoots will appear in 7-10 days. Transplanting seedlings into open ground is carried out in a checkerboard pattern. The holes are dug, observing the row spacing of about 40 cm.After transplanting the seedlings, the area is watered abundantly, and when the water is absorbed, the surface is mulched with hay or compost - this measure will help to delay the evaporation of moisture from the soil.
In the photo: Planting beans in the ground
Outdoor Bean Care
When the seedlings reach a height of 10-15 cm, they are thinned out and carefully pinched. Caring for growing beans is quite simple: regularly water the garden bed during a drought period, carry out 2-3 weeding from weeds and feed with microelements (boron, molybdenum, manganese) through the leaves, but this must be done carefully, early in the morning or after sunset, so that the solution does not left burns on the green.
Photo: Processing beans
Given enough moisture, the beans will bear fruit for about a month and will need to be harvested as the pods mature. In no case leave sick and overripe fruits on the bushes: they slow down the growth of new ovaries and consume nutrients necessary for the ripening of the pods. Harvesting is best in the morning or evening, when it is cool. You can store beans in dry, frozen or canned form.
To learn how to choose the right bean variety, watch the following video:
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Legumes family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Garden plants
How to grow beans at home: a step-by-step guide
Beans are a unique plant. It can be used both as a main course and as a side dish. Beans are canned, added to salads. The calorie content of beans is about 90 kcal per 100 g, in green beans (asparagus) - only 23 kcal for the same amount. The culture contains vitamins B and C, rich in keratin and zinc.
You don't need to own your own land to grow beans. Let's consider further how to plant beans at home and what is needed for this.
Potatoes: planting and growing
Potatoes are grown not only for the sake of economy: it is an opportunity to try new varieties, get high-quality and environmentally friendly products, and just an exciting experience.
The first rule that must be strictly followed: never plant potatoes where nightshades grew before (potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, peppers). The best predecessors: cucumbers, radishes, radishes, cabbage, beans, green peas and other cruciferous or legumes (including green manure - for example, oil radish, which has an excellent healing effect on the soil).
Potatoes prefer light processed loams or sandy loam soils. On heavy and stony ones, it develops poorly, the tubers grow deformed. In addition, this culture is very demanding on the fertility of the land. Therefore, it will not hurt to apply nitrogen and potash fertilizers to the area allocated for potatoes: mineral or organic (humus, compost - 5 kg per 1 sq. M, green manure, but not fresh manure). Potatoes are very responsive to making ash - 300 g per 1 sq. m. Organic fertilizers are usually applied for the autumn digging, and in the spring the soil is loosened with a pitchfork. If there is little fertilization, then compost or humus and ash are applied directly to the hole.
But when introducing them, it must be borne in mind that excessively high doses of organic fertilizers lengthen the growing season in potatoes, that is, increase the ripening period of tubers. If you apply fertilizers "with a margin", there is a possibility that early or mid-early varieties will have to be harvested simultaneously with medium-late ones, planted without excess organic matter. In addition, the content of nitrates in such tubers increases.
It is better to prepare a place for planting in the fall. The soil is cleared of weeds, applied per 1 sq. m a bucket of compost or rotted manure, 30 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium salt. Then they dig it up on a bayonet without breaking lumps: this will reduce the number of pests that have successfully overwintered in the soil, including the Colorado potato beetle.
It is very important to correctly determine the planting time. If potatoes are planted too early, in cold ground, the germination process is inhibited, and when frosts are below –3 ° C, the entire plant (both the tuber and the sprout on the surface) dies. When choosing the timing of planting, it is better to focus not on calendar dates, but on the temperature of the soil: at a depth of 8–10 cm, it should warm up to 6–8 ° С. In order not to measure the temperature of the soil yourself, pay attention to the trees - thanks to their deep roots, they "know" exactly how much the soil has warmed up at a particular depth. In the people, the optimal moment for planting potatoes is determined by the flowering of bird cherry. Flowers have blossomed - it's time to act. In order to have time to prepare the planting material, it is useful to know that bird cherry blossoms on the 28th day after the hazel blossom and on the 10th day after the birch turns green.
Prepare the tubers 20-25 days before planting: sort out the planting material, transfer it to a bright room with a temperature of 15-18 ° C and put the tubers in 1-2 layers to germinate.
1–2 days before planting, soak the tubers for 5–8 minutes in a weak joint solution of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate and boric acid - this will increase the resistance of the potato to infections and contribute to its better development. Tubers are processed carefully so as not to break the sprouts. The fact is that in each eye there are 3-4 dormant buds, from which shoots are formed. The first shoots are the most productive. If you break them off, a "spare" kidney will grow, but it will be less productive.
Potatoes constantly need loose soil, after rain it needs to be loosened and the bushes huddled. When buds are formed on the bushes, it is useful to break off the tops of the shoots: then the plant will use the products of photosynthesis to form the crop.
The potatoes are dug out when the leaves wilt and dry. The tops should be cut 1.5–2 weeks before harvest. If at this time the soil is moist and dense, loosen the aisles - this will provide air access to the tubers, their skin will become coarser, and the potatoes will be better stored. The dug tubers should be stored for a month at a temperature of 15–18 ° C and an air humidity of 85–90%. Place them no earlier than the temperature in the storage reaches 5 ° C.
Is it possible to grow a quince from a stone
The easiest way to plant a grown seedling of Japanese chaenomeles. But if desired, bones can also be used to propagate the culture. They are extracted from ripe, healthy, large fruits without damage.
Whole quince seeds are selected for planting, which do not have a whitish bloom and mold on the surface.
The seeds are washed and laid out on a sheet of paper for a day in a warm, well-lit place to dry. If the planting of the material is to be carried out in the spring, before that time the bones must be removed to the refrigerator for stratification. The latter should take about three months.
Rhododendron Rasputin can be propagated in almost all available ways:
The seed method is the most unpopular due to its laboriousness and significant time costs. Basically, rhododendron is propagated by cuttings - this method allows you to get a large amount of planting material at a time.
Cuttings are harvested as follows:
- In early August, young shoots are cut from the rhododendron and divided into cuttings of 6-7 cm.
- The lower part of the cuttings is cleaned of leaves and bark.
- Then the stripped end of the planting material is dipped into any growth promoter. Well suited for these purposes "Kornevin".
- After that, the stalk is slightly tilted into the substrate by 2 m.
- Planting material is watered, covered with plastic wrap and stored in the shade. Containers with cuttings are kept in a greenhouse, which must be ventilated at least once a day.
- After a month, the cuttings will form a full-fledged root system. In the spring, they are transplanted to a permanent place.
Care and cultivation techniques
How to grow groundnuts in the country and get a stable harvest? Peanut care is a traditional procedure.
Watering, weeding and loosening
At the end of spring, when the seeds are sown, the soil is still sufficiently moist from melt water, which means that there is no need to water the crops. The first water procedure is carried out after the emergence of friendly shoots.
In arid climates, peanuts are watered 2 times every 30 days. It is advisable to simplify plant care by organizing drip irrigation.
Young shoots do not differ in their height, therefore they need protection from weeds, which not only shade them, but also take away the necessary organic matter. Weeding, as a rule, is combined with loosening the soil.
Peanuts gratefully respond to the introduction of organic matter and microelements. During the growing season, mineral fertilizers are applied 3 times, using 450 g of potassium, 600 g of phosphorus, 60 g of nitrogen per every one hundred square meters of the garden.
Periods of application of nutrients:
- At the moment of formation of true leaf plates.
- During the formation of buds.
- During the period of fruit formation.
During the period of active growth, the plant needs a nitrogen complex. But during fruit setting, he needs phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Periodic hilling of bushes is one of the main requirements for obtaining a high yield. During the growing season, peanuts are spud:
- Before the beginning of the period of flower formation.
- 2 weeks after blooming.
- All summer it is recommended to spud the bushes every 10 days. The last hilling is carried out at the end of summer.
The spikelet has taken root on the prairies and in the arid territories of North America and Eurasia. Some of its varieties live in the Argentine desert. Feels good from subtropics to tundra. Among gardeners, many of its other names are common: elimus, wheatgrass, vostrets, vlosnets. The genus belongs to the family of cereals.
The underground part of the plant is very developed, it consists of powerful, horizontally growing roots. Growth buds develop on underground shoots. The stem of the spikelet is dense, erect. In different varieties, the height of the vegetation ranges from 20 cm to 1.5 m.
Thin, tough leaves are arranged in dense bunches closer to the ground. The foliage is elongated, in the form of ribbons, with a pointed edge, 2-15 mm wide. The lower surface is smooth, the upper surface may be rough or covered with hairs. The color of the ground part is dark green or gray with a silvery sheen. In autumn, the stems and leaves turn yellow or brown.
In June-July, inflorescences appear in the form of dense ears. The height of the inflorescences is 7-30 cm. They consist of many short, perpendicular spikelets.
How to plant cucumbers and tomatoes
Knowing about the incompatibility of the microclimate during cultivation, tomatoes are planted in greenhouses and greenhouses separate from cucumbers. It is not possible to combine these cultures, because a favorable environment for some completely ruins others. Nevertheless, they can grow nearby, however, they will be in a depressed state, constantly hurt and bear poor fruit.
On the open ground, grooves with tomatoes are not made in the immediate vicinity of cucumbers. Between them, some kind of neutral culture is necessarily planted, which, like a partition, will separate the plants from each other. When conditions do not allow tomatoes and cucumber beds to be separated by a sufficient distance, then you need to carefully monitor their leaving, comparing the features of your climate in order to carefully preserve both crops as much as possible.
In any case, between them you can always plant a small strip of beans, beetroot or some other "harmless" crop for both types of vegetables. Growing these vegetables in the same greenhouse, gardeners go to various tricks, to the extent that the soil between these crops is shifted with roofing material so as not to destroy the delicate roots of tomatoes from excess moisture during watering!
In order not to burden yourself with such work, try not to grow these crops nearby. Otherwise, do not complain about the poor harvest of cucumbers and rot on the tomatoes!